how does oil spill effect the abiotic?
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Oil spill are kill them via rotting them away,and also they die because of the oil blocking the leaves from getting any sunlight from the sun,so don't spill that black gunk on anything living as some of the effects will be similar. Oil spill are effect the food and water and the animals get killed by the oil getting in their thoart.when oil spill are into an aquatic environment, around the water surface and those that live under water. Spilled oil can also brake parts of the food chain, including human food resources.

what can oil spill effect the boitic?
When oil is spilt it gets on animal of all kinds, they breath it and drink it in their water. The small food plants or small animals that larger animals eat get covered in it, then become sick, and then they are eaten by larger animals. Any animal hunting or trying to feed around it will become covered and can drown, or suffocate They can be blinded, their lungs brake, and if they ingest too much their internal organs will not recover even if they are rescued. There are organizations that try to help save animals from such spills. But oil spills have devastating effects on the animals that come in contact with it, plus the environment suffers too.

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Bioaccumulation of hydrocarbons.
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Incorporation of even minimal quantities of hydrocarbons in the tissue of a marine organism, through uptake of dissolved fractions across direct ingestion of the pollutant, can affect its predators. If the pollutant is not broken down in the course of the organism’s metabolic processes, it can become increasingly concentrated all the way along the food chain.

At every link in the food chain, organisms consume around 10 kg of matter from the level below to produce 1 kg of their own living matter. If a contaminant passes from one level to another without being broken down, its concentration in the living matter multiplies nearly ten times at each link in the chain. Organisms at the top of food chain can therefore be exposed to very high concentrations of a product which did not affect the organisms further down the chain and can be detrimental to their health.
Hydrocarbon bioaccumulation is often put forward as a major concern when an oil spill occurs. It has never been definitively proven in the case of oil spills, a subject which was broached in a French study, published under the title “Marées noires et environnement” (black tides and the environment), which is discussed in detail in the [[rehabilitation/public-concern/answers.php|final chapter]]. This lack of proof does not imply that the risk does not exist. Fortunately however, many of the components of oil and petroleum products are biodegradable at some level of the food chain. Only the rarer, high molecular weight PAHs tend to have a significant bioaccumulation potential as far as the highest levels of the food chain. Therefore bioaccumulation, if indeed it occurs, is generally of a sufficiently low level to be masked by other clearer phenomena in the incidence of an oil spill.


biodegradation clean up oil spill
In soil bioremediation there are several factors to consider. Porosity, depth of contamination, moisture, oxygen, surface compaction, temperature and the type of soil contaminants and the type of soil. These determine the product and the time frame of treatment. First determine the amount and type of soil contamination with TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) testing. This should be reflected in PPM (parts per million) or mg/kg. This will also tell you the type of hydrocarbons. Then determine the size of the area to be treated. Preferably in cubic yards.

Under certain conditions, living microorganisms (primarily bacteria, but also yeasts, molds, and filamentous fungi) can alter and/or metabolize various classes of compounds present in oil, a set of processes collectively called oil biodegradation. Biodegradation affects oil spills and surface seeps. Furthermore, as first noted more than 30 years ago, biodegradation also alters subsurface oil accumulations (e.g., Winters and Williams, 1969). Shallow oil accumulations (< 80 oC reservoir temperature) are commonly found to be biodegraded to some degree. In fact, the vast majority of the world's petroleum is severely biodegraded oil in the shallow, super-giant Orinoco and Athabaska tar sands in Venezuela and Canada, respectively (e.g., Demaison, 1977). Smaller, but still giant, accumulations of biodegraded oil occur elsewhere throughout the world (Roadifer, 1987).

OIL effect the Bioremediation.

Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments.

Climax commonity

A climax community is a stable community of a diverse number of species. The repetitive replacements of serial community's eventually leads to a establishment known as a climax community. An example can be Australia, because it is a climax forest ecosystem.

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biome are living thing in the world like animals and plant .In the world biome has a problem with oil spill.When oill is spill in to the on ocean the ocean are get duntey , animals that live in the ocean are get sick by eat food with oil spill and also they can kill by oil spill .Many alimals and plant are effect by the oil spill.

Decomposers effect by oil spill.

Decomposers change wastes and deal organisms into nutrients.Then nutrients are make available to other organisms in soil,water,link,abiotic and biotic componets of an ecosystem, but if oil are spill in earth surface to organisms,soil and water most the everoment live in earth surface will be dead by iol spill.the animals and plant are will be heard to live.

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Oil spill effect the food chains

Food chains are the tropic level and show the feeding and inche realtionship among organisms.Food chain is have many tropic level and tropic level are Primary Producers,Primary Consumer,Secondary Consumer and Tertiary Consumer.when oil is spill into food chains the first oil spill in to the Primary Producers and then Primary Consumer are eat the Primary Producers and Secondary Consumer are eat the Primary Consumer after then Tertiary Consumer eat the Secondary Consumer.All animals like krill,crap and sea otter live in each tropic level are getting sick and dead by oil spill because they eat the food step by step.

Food Pyramids.
Food Pramids is a modle that show the loss of energy to other tropic level (for exampile: rabbit are eatting the grass.If oil spill is spill in to food pyramids of everoment sun energy that are trapped by plant flow out of an ecosystem
are will be dead or weak.Also animals that eat the plant are will get sick and weak because they can be able to dead.

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Food web

Food web are modle of feeding relationship within an ecisystem.(for ex: the animals deer ,hawk ,bear and wolf.
thoes animals are eatting each other step by step so if oil spill int to the earth surface or on ocean into everoment thoes animals are eat plant or drink water.the time when they eat and drink they also eat and drink with the oil.So the animals are weak as soon as they dead.Most animals are effect by oil spill.

Keystone Species
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Keystone species is species that can greatly affect population number and the health of ecosystem for examples :Salmon are keystone species in many B.C forest ecosystem.Also salmon are inprotent first food for bear,wolves,eagles and tooter.Most oil are spill into the ocean so fish and salmon are easy get the sick and weak.Oil spill is very inprotant for everoment alround the wrold because oil spill are effect all the everoment.

Natural selection.

Natural is a Process that results in adaptation of an organism to its environment by means of selectively reproducing changes in its genotype. Variations that increase an organism's chances of survival and procreation are preserved and multiplied from generation to generation at the expense of less advantageous variations. As proposed by Charles Darwin, natural selection is the mechanism by which evolution occurs. It may arise from differences in survival, fertility, rate of development, mating success, or any other aspect of the life cycle. Mutation, gene flow, and genetic drift, all of which are random processes, also alter gene abundance. Natural selection moderates the effects of these processes because it multiplies the incidence of beneficial mutations over generations and eliminates harmful ones, since the organisms that carry them leave few or no descendants. See also selection.

Nutrient density is a measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to the calories it provides. Foods low in calories and high in nutrients are nutrient dense, while foods high in calories and low in nutrients are nutrient poor. Nutrient-dense foods should be eaten often, whereas nutrient-poor foods should only be eaten occasionally. A healthful diet includes mostly nutrient-dense foods. People who restrict their calories should obtain as much nutrition as they can from the calories they consume by choosing nutrient-dense foods. Those who consistently choose nutrient-poor foods will not get the nutrients they need.


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Photosynthesis is the making of food by plants. The essential ingredients in making this food are sunlight, the chlorophyll that is present in green plants, water and carbon dioxide in the air. Photosynthesis is necessary not just for plants to make food for themselves, but for animals, including us eventually.if oil spill into the photosysnthesis environment will be easy to dead.Photosynthesis is also inprotant for biotic components of aquatic ecosystems.

Predation and species richness

Predation can either increase or decrease the number of species that coexist in a community, depending on the favorability of the environment and on the competitive status of the preferred prey species. For example, a keystone predator is one that feeds on a competitively dominant prey species. By reducing the dominant prey's abundance, the keystone predator releases competitively inferior prey from suppression by that dominant species. As a result, keystone predation allows more prey species to coexist within the community than would be possible in the absence of predation, and thus increases species richness within the community (predator-mediated coexistence). Conversely, when a predator feeds preferentially on competitively inferior prey species, predation can further reduce the number of species in the community. In environments that are favorable for prey, competition among prey species will be stronger, such that keystone predation can be important in reducing competitive exclusion among prey and thus increasing species richness. In unfavorable environments, on the other hand, most prey species are living at low population densities such that predation is likely to have negative effects on all prey species, thus lowering species richness.

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Symbiosis basically means ‘living together’ and in the context of marine biology refers to a close relationship between two species, for example the Clown fish and the anemone.
These symbiotic interrelationships can be divided into three main categories; Mutualism, when both species involved benefit from the relationship, Commensalism, when one species benefits and the other isn’t affected, and Parasitism, when one species benefits, and the other is harmed in the process.
There is a fourth, less ‘intimate’ category of symbiosis known as Mimicry, which involves one species imitating another to gain the benefits enjoyed by that species. For example a Banded snake eel mimicking a venomous sea snake in order to deter predators.

How does oil spill effect the tropic level?
in each tropic level they have different kind of animals food and kind of animals eat each other .if oil are spill in to one tropic level and other tropic level will get it too because the animals are carry it to step by step or they eat each other stepn by step and they get sick ,weak or dead.
Oil spill are effect so many thing in the wrold.

Describe how climate can be infulenced by human activities of Greenhouse gases.
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Climate can be infulenced by human activities the gases' global warming protentials.​Globa warming potential (GWP) describes ability of substance to warm the atmosphere by absorbing and emitting thermal energy.carbon dioxides assinged a GWP of 1.GWP of other greenhouse gas expresses warming the gas compare to warming ability of carbon dioxide over the sometime frame.

Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are often called greenhouse gases. This section of the EPA Climate Change Site provides information and data on emissions of greenhouse gases to Earth’s atmosphere, and also the removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.
Some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally and emitted to the atmosphere through natural processes and human activities. Other greenhouse gases are created and emitted solely through human activities. The principal greenhouse gases that enter the atmosphere because of human activities are carbon dioxide (CO2),Methane (CH4),Nitrous Oxide (N2O),and fluorinated Gases.

Carbon dioxide CO2:Carbon dioxide enter the atmosphere throught the burning of fossil fuels natural gas ,oiland coal.cCarbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere when it is absorbed by plant as part of the biologica carbon cycled.Methane CH4: Methane is gas that is very efficen at absorbing and emitting thermal energy.Methane are also improtant It is releaseed during the proccess of animal digestion. ​Nitrous oxide N2O: Nitrous oxide is third largest contribator to the enhanced greenhouse effect.Humans producce large amount of nitrous oxide from the use of nitrogen rich chemical fertilizers in farming and improper disposal of human and animal waste.
Fluorinate dases:Fluorinated gases are sometimes used as substitutes for ozone depleting substance. These gases are typically emitted in smaller quantities, but because they are potent greenhouse gases, they are sometimes referred to as High Global Warming Potential gases ( GWP gases”).

Target the area of soil or water contamination. Estimate square or cubic feet, yards, meters, acres, gallons, etc. Make appropriate preparations such as acquiring equipment for tilling the soil, providing for water and removing any debris before treatment. Take initial TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) soil tests. Results may be expressed in mg/kg, PPM or parts per million. These test should also tell us what type of pollution the hydrocarbons are. It also provides you with a starting point to monitor your progress. Alabaster Corp. will then prescribe an amount and blend of microbes and chemical products to add to the contaminated soil or water based upon the extent of contamination.