How Natural Phenomena Can Affect Climate.​

Volcanic Eruptions Phenomena.

Volcanic eruptions causes them to release large amounts of ash, carbon dioxide ( CO2 ),
hydrogen chloride ( HC1 ), and hydrogen fluoride ( HF ). Smaller volcanic eruptions inject sulphur dioxide but the sulphur dioxide can be abstracted by rain however sulphur dioxide causes acid rain. Acid rain can also be formed by the splitting of nitrogen compounds by the energy produced by lighting strikes, it is harmful to aquatic animals.

El Nino and La Nina Phenomena.

El Nino.
Winds blow west weaken and may reverse,
warm waters in the western pacific move eastward
preventing cold water from upwelling.This causes global weather patterns.

La Nina.
Strong winds push warm pacific waters far west.
Cold, deep sea waters well up in the eastern pacific, cooler weather.


BC science 10 text book.
McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
published in 2008

Unit One: Sustaining Earth's Ecosystems
Chapter one: Biomes and ecosystems are divisions of the biosphere.

1.1 Biomes .
Biomes are the largest divisions of the biosphere, that includes large regions that have similar biotic components ( living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and animals ) and abiotic components ( non-living for example soil and sunlight ). The Gulf of Mexico oil spill harms biomes marine and terrestrial biomes but mainly marine biome.

Biomes of the world.

1.2 Ecosystems.
Ecosystems is an interaction between biotic components and abiotic components. Within ecosystems are habitats. Habitats are places where an organism lives. Abiotic interactions in ecosystem and biotic interactions in ecosystem. Biotic interactions sometimes order in an ecological hierarchy : organism, population, community, and ecosystem. Within an ecosystem, organisms interact constantly within their species and with other organisms. Three types of interactions are commensalism: a relationship in which one specie benefits the other isn't harmed or helped, mutualism: both organisms benefit, parasitism: one benefits the other is harmed. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill affects the aquatic and terrestrial environment causing habital loss, decrease in population and unbalance in the natural cycles.

Chapter two: Energy flow and nutrient cycles support life in ecosystems.

2.1 Energy flow in ecosystem.Energy flows from producers ( plants ) to primary consumers ( zooplankton ) to secondary ( frogs ), and to tertiary consumers ( carnivores, wolf, humans ) . This chapter also talks about food webs and food chains. The difference between food webs and food chains is food webs are models of feeding relationships in an ecosystem and food chain is the flow of energy from plant to animal to animal. Oil spill threatens keystone species of being contaminated the oil will travel through our bodies causing sickness throughout the chain. This can cause decreases in the trophic levels of the food chains which can have bad effects.

2.2 Nutrient cycles in ecosystems.

Earth's biosphere seals all nutrients that support life and recycles all waste in it's boundaries. In this chapter there are three important nutrient cycles: carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle and phosphorus cycle. Human activities such as land clearing, burning of fossil fuels can affect nutrient cycles. The oil moves around the environment which affects other environments and limits the amount of nutrients given to marine animal and plants. Also, large amounts of carbon are being release rapidly into the marine, terrestrial ecosystems.


2.3 Effects of bioaccumulation on ecosystems.
As chemicals enter the environment plants absord the chemicals, which bioaccumulate into the fat tissues of herbivores and carnivores. Lead, cadium, and mercury bioaccumulate in the environment and affects organisms. Also, the chemicals become biomagnified in food pyramids which harms organisms. This is related to the oil spill because many fishes are contaiminated and the chemical builds up from the food into the organisms body causing death and, or population decrease.

Chapter three: Ecosystems continually change over time.

3.1, 3.2, 3.3

Recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has raised the amount of carbon in the waters and is a example of humans changing an ecosystem in a natural but accidental way. Oil spill are caused by resource use. Aquatic animals may spread their diseases off to their generations.



BC science 10 text book.
McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
published in 2008

Biomes and Ecosystems reference