1.1 BIOMES - Biomes are the world's major communities where insects, animals, plants, and people live in a certain type of climate. Each of these biomes can consist of many ecosystems and change over the years. The marine and freshwater biomes are extremely important because water is the basic and needed for all life. Biomes are the largest divisions of the biosphere. The large regions Within biomes have similar biotic (living organisms such as plants, and animals) and abiotic components (such as rocks and soil) . The interaction of these components determines the characteristics of the biomes. Temperature and precipitation are the main abiotic factors the influence the distribution of biomes and the organisms within them. Organisms have adaptations for survival in the specific environmental conditions of their biome. The 9 biomes are: Tundra (arctic and alpine), Boreal forests, Temperate Deciduous forests, Temperate rainforest, Grassland (Temperate and tropical), Tropical rainforest, Desert (hot and cold), Permanent ice (polar ice), and Aquatic biomes. Biomes are all around the world and vary in temperature and precipitation, latitude, elevation, ocean currents, location, physical features, climate, plant adaptations and animal adaptations. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill has harmed biomes and mainly the aquatic one because the oil spewed into the water is ingested by fish and when birds dive down to catch the fish it gets onto their beaks which can cause internal damage to them and also the food chain.


1.2 ECOSYSTEMS - The abiotic components of an ecosystem support the life functions of the biotic components of an ecosystem. Organisms within communities constantly interact to obtain resources such as food, water, sunlight, or habitat. Examples of these interactions in ecosystems include commensalism, mutualism, parasitism, competition, and predation. Ecosystems parts such as the habitat and community. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill has effected the ecosystem around it because the habitat for the marine animals has changed. Abiotic components such as oxygen have been reduced due the to oil which limits the nutrients that marine animals are able to acquire. Photosynthesis is slowed down because the plants in the water receive less light due to the oil sheet on top of the water.The population of fish can decrease because of the oil contaminating them and causing live damage as well as digestive tract damage.

2.1 ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS - Energy flow is the capture of solar energy through photosynthesis, which is the process used by plants to convert radiant energy from the sun into organic compounds such as glucose. We all need photosynthesis directly or indirectly. It starts from the producers such as plant to primary consumers (herbivores) to the secondary and tertiary consumers which are carnivores. Food webs and chains model these ideas and show the relationships between them. In the marine energy flow photosynthesizers such as bacteria would take in solar energy. Next herbivores such as water fleas and plankton would eat them and the food chain would keep moving. The oil can contaminate plankton which are food to different species of fish. Then when bigger fish, and humans ingest these fish the oil will travel through our bodies causing sickness throughout the chain. This can cause decreases in the trophic levels of the food chains which can have bad effects.

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2.2 NUTRIENT CYCLES IN ECOSYSTEMS - Nutrient cycles in ecosystems are stored in places such as the atmosphere, oceans, and land masses, and theses nutrients are essential for life. Earth's biosphere is like a sealed terrarium which holds these nutrients that support life and also constantly recycle waste. The carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, and phosphorus cycle. The nutrients are cycled in and out of these terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. Human activities can affect these cycles such as transportation. Biotic processes such as decomposition and abiotic processes such as river-run off can cause nutrients to flow in and out of stores. The oil in the ocean limits the amounts of nutrients given to marine plants and animals which causes an interference in the cycle and because of this the cycle will not work properly.

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2.3 EFFECTS OF BIOACCUMULATION ON ECOSYSTEMS - Synthetic chemicals enter the environment in air, water, and soil. Plants take up some of these chemicals and other chemicals start to bioaccumulate in the fat tissues of herbivores and carnivores.Bioaccumulation is the gradual build up of chemicals in and organism. Harmful chemicals, which in this case is oil can enter organisms such as bacteria and marine organisms through the food that they eat, skin, and the oxygen that they breathe in. This can result in death and cause decreases in the population of the organism. Biomagnification is the process in primary, secondary and tertiary consumers are effected because food is eaten and chemicals build up from the food in the organisms body. Bioremediation is a faster process of cleaning up naturally through biodegradation . Micro-organisms can naturally feed on chemicals and reduce them although if the organisms themselves are polluted it will not work properly.

3.1, 3,2, 3.3 HOW CHANGES OCCUR NATURALLY IN ECOSYSTEMS - Overtime living things such along with their enviroments, both biotic and abiotic components have also caused these changes along with humans. Natural selection has also changes over the years in these environments because of hunting and extinction. In the Gulf of Mexico it is aquatic so sharks would eat the smaller fish and reproduce although the oiled changes this because it has killed many species and harmed others. BP's recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has raised the amount of carbon in the waters and is a example of humans changing an ecosystem in a natural but accidental way. the oil is natural but it can be bad for the marine plants and animals The carbon will dissolve in the future due to humans extracting and cleaning the spill zone but also because of natural effects from organisms such as bioremediation. The carbon and oil is also traveling to other parts of the ocean such as Florida and changing the amounts of carbon in their water this can be unhealthy to everyone. This is destroying habitats and ecosystems and nothing major has been done to solve this issue. I don't think that BP has take this matter as something that should be resolved right away. Some smaller and larger organisms will not be able to adapt to these rapid and dramatic changes that the ocean is facing and it is growing worse everyday. BP needs to save these ecosystems that offer humans a lot in return its not just that ecosystems that are dying, but also the businesses around the Louisiana spill zone.


Wikispace comment: I enjoyed using wikispace to do the science prject on. It was much easier and faster then writing all the information on paper. You could also find more facts over the internet which made it funner then reading he text book. I like doing projects that invlove computers or powerpoint because it makes it faster and easier to create. Though wikispaces isn't very organized and as up to date in features as it should be. Also it doesnt always save your wrk causing you to start all over.


1. "Louisiana oil spill and effects"
effects of the spill and summary on what is being done to stop it

June 06,2010

2. "Wikipedia"
Biomes and Ecosystems reference
June 05, 2010

3. "EDF"
Effects of oil spill and what is being harmed
June 07, 2010

4. "Kids connect facts"
Facts on Biomes, habitats, and changing ecosystems
June 05-07, 2010

5. "Angel fire"
References to nutrient cycles, energy flow in ecosystems and processes of bioaccumulation
June 05-06, 2010

6. "OWMA"
Reference to oil spills, effects on ecosystems and everything else in project
June 04-07, 2010

7. "BC Science 10"
Page. 6-140

Shavneel Kumar

Science 10 (BLK:F)

What Lifestyle Changes Can Individuals Make To Minimize Damage To The Environment?

Society has a large impact on climate change. The jobs we do, the machines we run, the things we make, the way we get to work and make this all happen effect the earth and its climate. Many of our choices affects the Earth's Health such as organic foods or ones with pesticides in them, driving to work or using public transportation, biking, walking etc. Our decisions choose our tomorrow. How can our society deal with climate change? The small things such as recycling paper and bottles and not littering make a difference.
1. Reduce, Reuse, & Recycling is one of the things everyone can do. Recycling items such as paper and bottles save it from landing in landfills and not decomposing. The nature has provided abundant resources for us to live with. But we humans use these resources for our convenience and we pollute the environment. This will transform earth to a non liveable place. It is our responsibility to preserve the natural resources so that our successors can live a healthy life.

Everyone can definitely help the environment by recycling the things they use. You can recycle almost everything you use. It is better to buy recyclable items so that they can be recycled and a new material can be manufactured out of the scrap. If our society can and school can recycle everything then it will help reduce green house gases and reduce global warming.

Recycling has many other advantages to. You can save the power by recycling the used products. Manufacturing a new product requires power and energy. When you recycle, you can save a large quantity of energy and power. Also manufacture involved the use of non renewable resources. By recycling you preserve these resources

2. Saving Energy benefits all. Conserving energy and saving electricity can benefit us and the earth. By turning of the lights in our house it gives off less heat and reduces the amount of greenhouse gasses being release in the atmosphere.
Another major part of our lives is transportation which we mainly use vehicles for. A big change in vehicles the hybrid car. Majority of present day transportation - from land to air - burn some form of fossil fuel. It could be gasoline, diesel, kerosene, or coal. These fuels produce a lot of energy but also produce a lot of carbon dioxide which ends up polluting our atmosphere. This is the Achilles heal of the venerable gasoline and diesel engines - they cause pollution, lots of it. hybrids will reduce carbon dioxide emissions thereby resulting to less air pollution and less global warming. Then there is the factor of health. Hybrid cars produce fewer gases that can cause respiratory ailments like lung cancer. Furthermore, if all cars in cities were hybrids then smog will greatly be reduced. A great example would be the new car called the Nissan Leaf which is 100% electric and doesn’t use gas.

Smaller factors can also cause harmful effects to the earth but these can be changed such as turning off the lights when were not home, using less water, changing windows to more insulated windows saving the amount of heat we use in Winter, biking or walking for small commutes, Changing an incandescent light bulb with compact fluorescent lights.

What Strategies Can Cities And Communities Take To Address Climate Change?

Cities and communities make a difference in addressing climate change because they work together and help one another.
1.PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION- To start, taking public transportation and supporting local transit such as taxis will also encourage other people to do the same and make a change. The city could offer more public transportation and school buses that picked up students and dropped them to school this would reduce the emission in the air. emember, every gallon of gasoline you burn releases 25 pounds of carbon dioxide, so reducing daily commutes can have a significant impact.

2.BANNING AND REGULATIONS- The cities can ban smoking in parks, beaches, and other places such as the city of Vancouver. The City of Surrey can also do this which would help the environment and keep forest, parks, beaches etc cleaner and healthier.

3. ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSING AND BUILDING- When new houses are built the city and communities could place a regulation to use a renewable energy option and purchase greener power if you can. This will encourage the creation of more renewable energy facilities and reduce the amount of CO2 from coal-fired power plants that your electricity consumption produces. Home should also require thermostats and have a limit to how long you are able to run the heat and air conditioners in the seasons.

4. COMPOSTING- The city can require everyone to compost remains of foods and items such as orange peels and egg shells. Instead of going into land fills and being wasted compost can be a excellent garden fertilizer, containing several nutrients for your garden. Not only is it a necessary addition to the soil in your yard or garden, it's also the perfect way to get rid of your food scraps, yard clippings, leaves, manure, pine needles, dryer lint, and even cardboard and papers you need to get rid of.


What Is The Role Of Government In Supporting Efforts To Address Climate Change?

The Government can cause massive changes towards climate change and the environment. The government can tell car manufacturers to make more energy efficient vehicles that burn less fossil fuels and make all car affordable hybrids which would allow many families too buy these cars. Canada as a country has also placed many policies on forest cutting and water to help save the environment. The government could also teach programs at school on climate change or talk more about it in science, this would teach younger and older children smart ways that they can help save the environment. The Canada Line is a good example of what the government has done to escalate the use of public transportation, The Canada Line was finished this year and run from downtown to the airport etc. When the Olympics happened then many used this as a form of transportation instead of cars to get around Downtown and other cities.

The Conclusion

In Conclusion there are many thing we as one can do by ourselves to help the environment such as composting and recycling and we as a community can do much more such as use public transportation and keep our forest and parks litter free. Our climate is changing for the worse and we are the ones to blame for this, there is only one Earth that we can live on so we can't wreck it. Although the negative effects we cause are not all permanent we can still reverse some of theses affects and change our bad environmental habit to good ones such as recycling and using public transportation on good days or smaller commutes. If we work together and take these small steps to stop global warming and climate change it will work.


1. "How to help the Environment"
Lifestyle Changes To help The Environment
April, 25, 2010

2. BC Science 10 Textbook
Page 468- Composition of Earths Atmosphere

3. "Reduce, Re-use, and Recycle"
Reduce, reuse, and recycling (what and how to recycle)
April, 25, 2010

4. "Nissan Leaf"
Reference to Nissan leaf automobile and facts"
April, 26, 2010

5. "Smarter Cities"
What can the community and city do to help climate change
April, 27, 2010

6. "Composting"
How Composting helps towards a better environment
April, 27, 2010


7. "Videos"
April 25-27, 2010