Unit 1. Sustaining Earth's Ecosystems!

Sustaining Earth's Ecosystems is very important. In this reason we are talking about three chapters which are Biomes and ecosystems are divisions of the biosphere, Energy flow and nutrient cycles support life in ecosystems, and finally the Ecosystems continually change over time.Ecosystem-Cover.jpg

Chapter 1.1,we are going to talk about "biomes". Biomes are includes large regions that have similar "biotic" components, such as similar plants and animals, and similar "abiotic" components such as similar temperature and amount of rainfall. In this chapter we're also talk about "Factors That Influence the Characteristics and Distribution of Biomes." Temperature and Precipitation are tow of the most important abiotic factors that influence the characteristics of biomes and the distribution of biomes on Earth including Latitude, is the distance measured in dregrees north or south from the equator. The equator, which is at 0 degrees latitude, divides Earth into the northern and southern hemispheres. Elevation, is the height of a land mass above sea level. Ocean currents are another abiotic factor that affects temperature and precipitation and therefore influences the characteristics of biomes. Climate is the average pattern of weather conditions that occur in a region, which are observed and recorded over a period of years. Climatograph is a graph of climate data for a specific region and is generated from data usually obtained over 30 years from local weather observation stations. We also talk about Adaptations and Biomes, Adaptations are characteristics that enable organisms to better survive and reproduce. There are three types of adaptations: structural, physiological, and behavioural. Structural adaptation is a physical feature of an organism's body having a specific function that contributes to the survival of the organism. Physiological adaptation is a physical or chemical event that occurs within the body of an organism that enables survival. Behavioural adaptation refers to what an organism does to survive in the unique conditions of it's environment. So far in this chapter we have learned about biomes, biotic and abiotic and there are eight types of terrestrial biomes in Canada which are Boreal forest, Desert, Grassland, Permanent ice, Temperate deciduous forest, Temperate rainforest, Tropical rainforest and Tundra. biomes.jpg
Chapter 1.2, talks about Ecosystems such as "Parts of an Ecosystem, Abiotic Interactions in Ecosystems, Biotic Interactions in Ecosystems, Symbiotic Relationships, Niches, competition, Predation, and Biodiversity in Ecosystems. In an ecosystem, abiotic components, such as oxygen, water, nutrients, light, and soil, support the life functions of biotic components, such as plants, animals, and micro-organisms. A habitat is the place in which an organism lives, as a result of these interactions, organisms have special role or niches in their ecosystems. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus and chemicals that are required for plant and animal growth. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that converts solar energy into chemical energy usable by plants. In Biotic interactions in ecosystems, we'll talk about a species is a group of closely related organisms that can reproduce with one another. Population refers to all the members of a particular species within an ecosystem. Community is all the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem. Commersalism, mutualism, and parasitism are examples of symbiosis or symbiotic relationships. Competition is a harmful interaction between two or more organisms that can occur when organisms compete for the same resource (such as food) in the same location at the same time. Predation is the term used to describe predator-prey interactions in which one organism (the predator) eats all or part of another organism (the prey). ecosystem.jpg
Chapter 2.1, talks about Biomess, Energy flow, Producer, Consumer ( primary, secondary, tertiary). Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus and chemicals that are required for plant and animal growth. Biomess is total mass of all living things in a given area. Energy flow is the transfer of energy from one organism to another in an ecosystem. Producer (plants) produce carbohydrates from Carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) and the sun's energy, Consumers get their energy by feeding on producers or other consumers. Decomposers change wastes and dead organisms into usable nutrients. It's also talks about the different between food chains and food web, food chains show the flow of energy from plant to animal and from animal to animal and food web is interconnected food chains, illustrated in a model. There are four trophic level, producers (1st trophic level), primary consumers (2nd trophic level), secondary consumers (3rd trophic level), and tertiary consumers (4th trophic level). Herbivores are only eat plants but carnivores, omnivores, and detriovres are only eat meats.food-web.jpg

Chapter 2.2 talks about Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems, The cycling of nutrients in the Biosphere, The effect of human activities on nutrient cycles, The Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles, The carbon cycle, Human activities and the carbon cycle, The nitrogen cycle, Human activities and the nitrogen cycle, The phosphorus cycle, Human activities and the phosphorus cycle, and How changes in nutrient cycle affect biodiversity. Nutrients are chemicals that are required for plants and animals growth and other life processes. Nutrient cycles are cycled in the biosphere; the continuous flows of nutrients in and out of stores. Sedimentation is the process that contributs to the formation of sedimentary rock. Carbonate is a combination of carbon and oxygen (CO32-) that is dissolved in ocean water. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that converts solar energy into chemical energy. Cellular respiration is the process in which both plants and animals release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere by converting carbohydrates and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water. Nitrogen fixation is the process in which nitrogen gas (N2) is converted into compounds that contain nitrate (NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+). Denitrification is nitrogen returned to the atmosphere in a process. We will learn so many things in 2.2 between human and cycles. acid_rain.gif

Chapter 2.3 talks about Effects of Bioaccumulation on ecosystems, How pollutants climb the food chain, Bioaccumulation, PCBs and the orca, Persistent organic pollutants, Heavy metals, Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, and Reducing the effects of chemical pollution. Keystone species are species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem. Biomagnification is the process in which chemicals not only accumulate but become more concentrated at each trophic level. Half-life is the time it takes for the amount of a substance to decrease by half. Heavy metals are metallic elements with a high density that are toxic to organisms at low concentrations. Lead is naturally present in all soils, generally in the range of 15 ppm to 40 ppm. Cadmium is found in Earth's crust and is released into the environment through rock weathering, volcanoes, and forest fires. Because of the human activities, effect the environments and animals. This is explain us properly about the effects of Bioaccumulation on ecosystems and pollutants cause the food chain.pathways_of_pollution.gif

Chapter 3.1 talks about How changes occur naturally in ecosystems, How organisms adapt to change, How ecosystems change over time, and How natural events affect ecosystems. Ecological succession is the term scientists use to refer to changes that take place over time in the types of organisms that live in an area. Primary succession occurs in an area where no soil exists, such as on bare rock. Pioneer species is the term scientists is the term scientists use to describe the lichens and other plants that are the first organisms to survive and reproduce in an area. Climax community is the process of primary succession leads to the development of a mature community. Secondary succession occurs as a result of a disturbance to an area that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms. Tsunami is the term used to describe a huge, rapidly moving ocean, rapidly moving ocean wave. Drought is a recurring event in many parts of the world. We had learn many way to change or adapt the organisms in the ecosystem and sometimes we can look forward to think about the organisms that had disappeared for long time ago. It's our duty to help out the animals that live in ecosystem otherwise we will loose everything in this world. ecosystem_(2).jpg

Chapter 3.2 talks about How humans influence ecosystems, Understand sustainability, The effects of land and resource use, Habitat loss, The effects of deforestation, The effects of agriculture, The effects of resource exploitation, and Resource management and traditional ecological knowledge. Land use refers to the ways we use the land around us for urban development, agriculture, industry, mining, and forestry. Resource use refers to the ways we obtain and use these materials. Habitat loss refers to the destruction of habitats, which usually results from human activities. Habitat fragmentation is the division of habitats into smaller, isolated fragments. Deforestation is the practice in which forests are logged or cleared for human use and never replanted. Soil degradation can occur when water adn wind erosion removes topsoil from bare land. Soil compaction occurs when soil particles are squeezed together and the air spaces between the particles are reduced. Contamination is the introduction of chemicals, toxins, wastes, or micro-organisms into the environment in concentrations that are harmful to living things.land_use_overview11.jpg

Chapter 3.3 talks about How introduced species affect ecosystems, The impact of introduced invasive species, and Saving an ecosystem under siege. Native species are plants and animals that naturally inhabit an area. Invasive species are organisms that can take over the habitat of native species or invade their bodies, thus weakening their immune systems. In this chapter, we had learn so many things like competition, predation disease and parasites and habitat alteration, it's look similar as chapter 1.2.

Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is important to millions of people in the U.S, Mexico and Cuba and also for any organisms. On April 20, an oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico. The explosion caused oil to leak. The oil rig is about 80 kilometers off shore and it's very dangerous because about 800,000 liters of oil have spilled into the ocean each day. It's difficult to clean up the oil rig. The oil harm wet lands, ocean, lands, beach and also the animals. All the people will loose their jobs because of the oil's harmful. It's a huge disaster for all people. These oil rig can spill everywhere and around the world. gulf-of-mexico-oil-seeps.jpg


Used June 2, 3, 6 and 7.


The wikispace is incredible and i love it a lots. It's fun and helpful for me to know more abut it. You can upload images, videos and anything you want to and i really like it. I feel comfortable to do Science 10 project in the wikispace and i hope everyone will love it too. It's useful to all Science 10's students if they really care about the wikispace. Thank you!

Kue's Science 10 page!! r194556_737903.jpg

What changes can society make in order to deal with the problems associated with climate change?

  • There are a problems with climate change, people in the world do not know how to protect the environments and do not know how to change the situation about climate.Climate change threatens to cause famine, submerge coastal cities under rising seas, turn some of our most productive farmlands into dust, and cause record-breaking heat waves in urban areas. They believed and used the technology that they built and they did not know that would cause the climate. There are no way to stop people from driving their cars everywhere because no one want to travel by their selves to work from home. To protect the environments, instead of driving cars, we must use bicycles or walk and that would be a good exercise for everyone if everybody do that. Another thing is to plant a trees to help more environments, use renewable sources for energy, conserve water. Factories should stop throwing chemicals into the river, and recycle. Nuclear and carbon dioxide can also effect the environments and climate. Reminding ourselves that there is a lot that we can personally do, and starting to take action to manage the environment better, can help us movie from despair and hopelessness to a sense of empowerment.environmental.jpg

  • People can stop throwing garbages on the road, in river and can put the garbages in the recycles as well. Exercises is a good societal values affect lifestyle that change people. People must do exercise fifteen minutes for every day and that will be helpful for their healths. People can stop cut down the trees, stop using carbon dioxide gases that cause climate change. Instead of using carbon dioxide gases people must plant the trees and anything that can make climate change better.People can join a conservation organization, volunteer time to conservation projects, give money to worthy conservation/environmental causes, watch nature programs on TV. People can stop buy food or household products in plastic or Styrofoam containers if there's an alternative like ( milk and egg cartons, vegetable oils, butter tubs and many more) because they cannot be recycled and they don't break down in the environment. We must think about the effects of daily actions on the environment and protect them as well, People think there is not much they can do but there are a lots of things that people willing and could do. RecyclingRebecca_blacklogo_o_large.jpg

  • People can use electric heater instead of fire places, people also can use less heat and air conditioning, hot water must use less. People in cities can start travel by public transportation or use bicycles. They could build more parks, they could have more recycles bar, more composting. Instead of cutting down the trees, people must plant more trees, have highest density house so the houses cannot take more lands. They can use salt water instead of chlorinate water. People can clean or sweep the road once a week to keep the city clean. plant_a_tree_for_the_planet_434505.jpg

  • The government can give money back to people who use public ticket transportation. They can also find different energy source, instead of coal and gases. The government should tell people to drive three days a week in downtown, because if you drive car too much gases can also cause the climate change. Government should tell car maker to make more electric cars and government should tell company to clean up their own pollution so we don't have to do.cartoon_bus_wt.jpg

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Both use last week April 23...