Science 10 Unit 1 Project​

1.1 : Biomes
The oil spill is not only affecting aquatic environments but terrestrial ones as well. There are many organisms both biotic and abiotic that are affected. Oxygen, water, nutrients, light, and soil are some examples of abiotic components that are affected both on land and in water. Firstly abiotic components support the life functions of biotic components such as plants, animals and micro-organisms. Abiotic components are affected not by the oil actually doing something to it but, by blocking off their routes or ways from getting to the biotic components. Biotic components can be affected in the terms of food. Since many of these aquatic plants and animals rely on the ocean for their main food supply they may begin to die off. Organisms in terrestrial areas may also be affected in the means of evaporation of water from the ocean. This water could fall to the earth in the form of precipitation that can land on plants and animals who might unknowingly ingest the harmful substances, that may lead to sickness or death.

1.2 : Ecosystems
Due to the oil spill many plants and animals both on land and in water (terrestrial and aquatic) may have major problems in finding food. This can lead to increased competition which may lead to the loss of important species. Both abiotic and biotic components interacting with one another can help run an ecosystem. Abiotic components such as oxygen, water, nutrients, light, and soil all help the life function of biotic components (living things). But, due to the oil spill many of these functions are left out. For example plants in water need light to carry on a process called photosynthesis which is a chemical reaction that converts solar energy into chemical energy that is usable for the plant. But, due to the event that took place the oil from this blocks sunlight from reaching the plants below the surface eventually leading to the plants dying off.If any one of these aquatic organisms is removed from this food web the whole food web could be changed. Because since these organisms rely on each other for food even if one gets removed the rest will either have to make changes and begin to eat other organisms or they will begin to die
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2.1 : Energy flow in Ecosystems
Because of the oil spill biodegradation can also be a problem. Since producers aren’t or may not be able to “produce” due to the oil in the air or in the water and consumers wont be able to “consume” properly because they might end up dying off. Decomposers can also have major problems changing wastes and dead organisms into usable nutrients especially in the water due to the oil. And because of this food webs can also be affected.

2.2 : Nutrient Cycles In ecosystems
The Carbon cycle is the essential component of cells and life-sustaining chemical reactions. Carbon is cycled through living and decaying organisms, the atmosphere, bodies of water, soil, and rock. It moves between store by 6 processes : photosynthesis, cellular respiration, decomposition, ocean processes, volcanic eruptions, and forest fires. But, due to the oil spill many of these processes can’t be carried out properly or can cause damage to the organism. For example when there is oil in the ocean the plants down beneath can’t receive sunlight which they need to carry out the process of photosynthesis. Another example would be cellular respiration the process in which carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere. This process can cause harm to organisms in the means of them breathing them in after they have breathed is out which in this case could be evaporated oil.


2.3 :Effects of bioaccumulation on ecosystems
The oil spill will cause damage to the natural processes of the earth as well. Some of these processes include bioaccumulation, biomagnifications, and bioremediation. Bioaccumulation is the gradual build-up of chemicals in organisms which in this case could be oil. Chemicals or oil can enter an organism through food intake, skin contact, or respiration. If the intake of chemical (oil) is to much it can be harmful to the organism. So since there is so much oil in the water and some moving on land both terrestrial and aquatic organisms can be affected. But, mostly aquatic since that is the main source for were the oil is located. Biomagnification is the process in which chemicals not only accumulate but become more concentrated at each trophic level. Since the organisms in the lower trophic levels will be affected more then others because they are consuming most of the contaminated food. This leading to keystone species. These are very important species that can affect entire population and the health of an ecosystem. So, if even one of these species dies off the entire ecosystem can suffer. This moves into bioremediation which is the process in which micro-organisms or plants help clean them up. But if these organisms are being affected by the oil spill then bioremediation cannot take place. Meaning that the oil will remain as it is until, human efforts are made to get rid of it.


3.2 :How humans influence ecosystems
Due to the oil spill many habitats will be lost. Since the oil spill Is a human accident the animals and other organisms are being put to suffer since they themselves cannot completely clean up the mess. Humans use much of the resources of the world sometimes even over using them. Such as land use, and deforestation. These two are major problems the humans put themselves and other organisms in.



3.3 : How introduced species affect ecosystem
The oil spill can also affect native species which are the species that originally or naturally inhabit an area. Because of the spill many new things may be introduced into the ecosystems of the Gulf, to clean up the spill, which can subsequently become introduced invasive species. Since they are able to completely change an ecosystem. These new introduced species can put an end to the native species of the area.

I have a video about the oil spill regarding to fishing:


This video forbids fishing around the areas that the oil spill covered. So because of these warnings, the survival of the spicies of fishes rises up and it will give the fishes the will to survive.




CLIMATE EFFECTS OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

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VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

Everyday there is single volcano exploding. This is due to oceanic plate subducting continental plate.


But we're talking about the effects of volcanic eruption. When it explodes it blows out harmful chemicals that damages our Mother Earth most likely our problem, the global warming. Global warming is caused by overproduction of CO2 that traps heat and bounces back to Earth like a greenhouse.


Now let's see the explanation on how volcanic eruptions affect the climate:

What Benjamin Franklin observed was indeed the result of volcanic activity. An enormous eruption of the Laki fissure system in Iceland caused the disruptions. The Laki eruptions produced about 14 cubic kilometers of basalt during more than eight months of activity. More importantly in terms of global climate, however, the Laki event also produced an ash cloud that may have reached up into the stratosphere. This cloud caused a dense haze across Europe that dimmed the sun, perhaps as far west as Siberia. In addition to ash, the eruptive cloud consisted primarily of vast quantities of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride gases. The gases combined with water in the atmosphere to produce acid rain, destroying crops and killing livestock. The effects, of course, were most severe in Iceland; ultimately, more than 75 percent of Iceland?s livestock and 25 percent of its human population died from famine or the toxic impact of the Laki eruption clouds. Consequences were also felt far beyond Iceland. Temperature data from the U.S. indicate that record lows occurred during the winter of 1783-1784. In fact, the temperature decreased about one degree Celsius in the Northern Hemisphere overall. That may not sound like much, but it had enormous effects in terms of food supplies and the survival of people across the Northern Hemisphere. For comparison, the global temperature of the most recent Ice Age was only about five degrees C below the current average.

In my conclusion volcanoes do contribute the massive production of CO2s in the air, in one eruption there is a big consenquences as it worsen gloal warming. We can't blame the volcanoes because it occurs naturally.

Iceland Volcanic Eruption The Eyjafjallajokull Volcanic Activity Causes Chaos. The Iceland volcano eruption has caused more widespread destruction than the recent earthquakes. Although the death toll is low, air traffic across Europe is at a stand still.

The Ashes spreaded across the whole Iceland up to Europe. The reason that stopped the flight of almost all planes in Europe. And because of this, the CO2 count went up in an incredible speed.


Watch volcano Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f1ztg0wUqKY



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